Anarchism in Japan began to emerge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as Western anarchist literature began to be translated into Japanese. It existed throughout the 20th century in various forms, despite repression by the state that became particularly harsh during the two world wars, and it read its height in the s with organisations such as Kokuren and Zenkoku Jiren. Japanese anarchism had a number of notable leading figures who dominated the movement at different times. The first of these leaders was Kotoku Shusui , who led the development of an anarchist faction within existing left-wing movements, which then split into its own independent movement in the first decade of the s. Kotoku was executed for treason in , and the movement was subject to severe repression for a decade. The next leading figure was Osugi Sakae , who involved himself heavily in support for anarcho-syndicalism and helped to bring the movement out of its 'winter period', until he was murdered by military police in
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Photos Add Image. See all 4 photos. Edit Cast Credited cast: Brigid Berlin Girl in tub as Brigid Polk Julian Burrough Self Taylor Mead Harmonica Player Allen Midgette Silent man Rolando Pena Young Revolutionary Ingrid Superstar Topless Girl Viva The Waitress Louis Waldon Painted man See full cast.
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Man in tub : Corner boys? Kotoku arrived back in Japan on June 28,where he spoke to a meeting about "The Tide of the World Revolutionary Movement". In SeptemberKotoku received a letter from Kropotkin himself, which he published in the socialist press in Novemberwhich promoted the rejection of parliamentary tactics in favour of what he called "anti-political syndicalism".
There is no way to reach our goal of socialism other than by the direct action of the workers, united as one. An anarchist faction had firmly emerged within the socialist movement, largely due to Kotoku's influence.
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Nevertheless, united organisations between anarchists and the more reformist social democrats still existed, such as the Japan Socialist Party which had been founded in This organisation had pledged to advocate socialism only within the limits of the law, and had been permitted to do so by the more moderate government of Saionji Kinmochi.
In Februarythe Japan Socialist Party held a party conference in Tokyo. The ideas promoted by Kotoku had seriously challenged the party program and its pledge to observe reformist tactics, and a vigorous debate ensued between the 'soft' pro-parliamentary and 'hard' pro- direct action factions. As a result, the party was banned just days after the conference; Heimin Shinbun closed in Aprildue to the split.
The 'hard' faction faced many problems in the years following In Junethe Red Flag Incident occurred, in which an anarcho-communist demonstration was attacked by police.
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Many significant figures in the nascent movement were arrested, including Osugi Sakae, Hitoshi YamakawaKanno Sugakoand Kanson Arahata. Kotoku endeavoured to translate an American anarcho-syndicalist pamphlet titled The Social General Strike.
Unions were banned due to the Peace Preservation Law, however, and much anarchist discussion, particularly surrounding unions, was highly theoretical rather than practical. Kotoku also translated Kropotkin's seminal work The Conquest of Bread into Japanese,  finishing in He was assisted by Osugi and Yamakawa, whose work was cut short by their imprisonment. InAkaba Hajime penned a pamphlet entitled The Peasant's Gospel Nomin no Fukuin which argued in favour of creating an anarchist paradise through anarchist communism, demonstrating the influence of Kropotkin on the movement.
He was forced to go underground after illegally distributing the pamphlet, but eventually he was caught and imprisoned, dying in custody in The Japanese anarchist movement existed under harsh and repressive conditions, limiting the range of activity of its members.
They had an extensive historical connection with terrorism and violence, such as their ideological affinity with assassination and the violent tactics of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries.
Therefore, some anarchist militants began to make plans for a bombing campaign in When Takichi Miyashita had little success when distributing a pamphlet by Buddhist anarchist Uchiyama Gudo that was critical of the Emperorhe became determined out of frustration to assassinate the figurehead of the Japanese state.
He gained the active support of three others, including Kanno Sugako, who was now released from prison and having a love affair with the already-married Kotoku. The latter even briefly supported his efforts to acquire a bomb.
Kotoku withdrew from the plot in lateopting not to become a martyr for the cause; the other four continued without him regardless.
In Maythe plot was discovered, and despite his withdrawal Kotoku was arrested and indicted as well in June. Some of those imprisoned for the Red Flag Incident in were still in prison at the time of the plot's discovery, and so could not be implicated in the High Treason Incident. The High Treason trial and its fallout marked the start of the 'winter period' ???fuyu jidai of Japanese anarchism, in which left-wing organisations were tightly monitored and controlled, and militants and activists were tailed 24 hours a day by police.
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He remained under constant surveillance for five years, and those who visited him were often subjected to police violence. Osugi and Arahata were both anarcho-syndicalists, and helped to push the anarchist movement in that direction. Osugi understood French, and his translations of French media became the principal source of information in Japan on the French CGT union, a pioneer of syndicalist tactics. This was followed by the formation of a 'Society for the Study of Syndicalism' indelivering lectures on the CGT and the efforts of British syndicalist Tom Mann.
In both of these outlets, discussion tended towards the abstract and remained disconnected from the workers it supposedly concerned, which was a natural result of the restrictions of the winter period.
In OctoberOsugi and Arahata attempted to replace Modern Thought with a revival of the old Heimin Shinbun newspaper, but this was met with repeated suppression of its issues and was forced to fold in March Several attempts by other anarchists to publish radical newspapers and journals in this period were repeatedly banned as well, and some editors were imprisoned.
The theoretical split between anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism that emerged within European anarchism was not yet a significant issue within Japanese anarchism, particularly due to the fact that labour unions were still illegal.
The Japanese movement was strongly anti-militaristand so the reaction against Kropotkin also detracted from the reputation of the communist faction. During the winter period, the feminist Bluestocking magazine was formed. The anarcha-feminist Ito Noe became the editor of this magazine inand one of the activities that she undertook in this role was the translation of some of the works of Emma Goldman.
Osugi Sakae, as many anarchists did, believed in the doctrine of free love. He personally lived out his values, involving himself in two relationships outside of his marriage, with Ito and another woman called Kamichika Ichiko. This caused a scandal in Novemberwhen Kamichika stabbed Osugi due to her unhappiness in the relationship. He survived, and later married Ito. The 'winter period' came to an end in as the stringent repression on left-wing movements imposed by the Japanese government was challenged by growing social unrest.
During the First World WarJapanese industry rapidly expanded, and combined with inspiration by the Russian Revolutionthis led to a huge growth in the labour movement.
Inflation had also led to economic unrest in the form of the rice riots of The growing labour unions were met with enthusiasm from the anarchist movement, and quickly gained a foothold.
Ideologically, anarchists favoured a decentralised structure for unions, which was met with resistance from the other factions within the unions: the reformists, who led most unions early on; and Japanese Bolsheviks, who sought to emulate the revolution achieved by Vladimir Lenin.
In the early s, anarchists were somewhat willing to cooperate with the Bolshevik faction, due to an albeit limited ideological affinity. Kanson Arahata was among those anarcho-syndicalists who had turned to bolshevism afterand was later personally involved in the founding of the Japanese Communist Party.
These connections enabled joint projects between the two factions, such as a joint labour union alliance and joint demonstrations on May Day Inthe Comintern itself helped to fund the journal for its second series of publication in Bythere was a split between anarchists and Bolsheviks, called in Japanese the Ana-Boru Ronso. Some anarchists were once again driven to terrorism when frustrated by government suppression. This included the Girochinsha Guillotine Societya Japanese anarchist group hailing from Osaka,   who were involved with revenge killings aimed at Japanese leaders during the mids.
Osugi Sakae was a translator, and was significant in maintaining a close contact between Japanese anarchists and the wider world.
He participated in the International Workers' Association meeting shortly before his murder. ByOsugi was a clear leader in the anarchist movement. In response, the state used the turmoil surrounding the Great Kanto earthquake as a pretext to round up Osugi and Ito Noe, who was now his wife. According to writer and activist Harumi SetouchiIto, Osugi, and his 6 year old nephew were arrested, beaten to death and thrown into an abandoned well by a squad of military police led by Lieutenant Masahiko Amakasu.
What both accounts agree on, however, is that both or all of the prisoners were brutally executed without even the formality of a trial, where conviction and death sentence would in the case of the two adults have probably have been a foregone conclusion.
This became known as the Amakasu Incident and it sparked much anger, including terrorist actions by groups such as the Girochinsha. The historian John Crump argued that "once again, the most able anarchist of his generation had been murdered", echoing the execution of Kotoku Shusui just twelve years prior.
After Osugi's death, the dominant tendency within Japanese anarchism became 'pure' anarchism.
It was championed by Iwasa Sakutaro and another anarchist named Hatta Shuzo. Hatta Shuzo became the most influential figure in Japanese anarchism afterinvolving himself in the movement from until Hatta was an artypal pure anarchist, seeking particularly to eliminate the influences of capitalism and bolshevism. There were two main organisations within the Japanese anarchist movement in the late s: the Kokuren federation, and the Zenkoku Jiren union.
The two were closely associated, with their relationship being compared to that between the Spanish FAI federation and CNT union although Japanese and Spanish anarchists differed in ideology. Kokuren had its roots in the development of democracy during the Taisho era. In Decembera coalition of leftists formed the Farmer-Labour Party in order to take advantage of the democratic developments.
Anarchism in Japan began to emerge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as Western anarchist literature began to be translated into Japanese. It existed throughout the 20th century in various forms, despite repression by the state that became particularly harsh during the two world wars, and it read its height in the s with organisations such as Kokuren and Zenkoku Jiren
Anarchists opposed this, perceiving political parties of all kinds as being opportunists that ultimately reinforced the state, and so gatecrashed its opening conference. The Party was banned by the authorities on the day of its founding, but the anarchists were encouraged by their success and began to form an organisation of their own. While its name indicated an orientation towards youth association, it drew support from a variety of sources, including the labour movement including unions.
Early on in its existence, it openly supported the cause of these unions alongside the syndicalist idea of class strugglealthough pure anarchists such as Hatta Shuzo were also a part of the organisation from the very start. Zenkoku Jiren was a federation of labour unions that was formed in May In full, it was named Zenkoku Rodo Kumiai Jiyu Rengokai 'All-Japan Libertarian Federation of Labour Unions'  and it started off with as many as 8, members. Kokuren and Zenkoku Jiren often collaborated in activism, such as a joint campaign against the execution of Sacco and Vanzettitwo Italian anarchists in the United States.
Hatta published a serialised article in Kokushoku Seinen called 'An Investigation Into Syndicalism' in latewhich harshly attacked anarcho-syndicalism, and Kokuren quickly became a stronghold of pure anarchism. The tension between the anarcho-syndicalist faction and the pure anarchist faction grew from onwards.
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When Zenkoku Jiren mistakenly sent delegates to a conference organised by the Bolshevik Profintern inKokuren was highly sceptical of their actions and openly decried 'opportunist' elements within their counterpart.
In MarchZenkoku Jiren' s second national conference took place. The tension between the two factions only grew, despite a call for unity in a January letter by Augustin Souchya secretary of the anarchist International Workers' Association. Zenkoku Jirennow dominated by pure anarchists who rejected syndicalist tactics, believed that unions were not inherently revolutionary. As a result, when they were involved in labour disputes, the organisation directed attention away from the immediate circumstances and towards their long-term goal of an anarchist revolution.
Every issue of Kokushoku Seinen had been prohibited from sale, and this radicalisation only contributed to its reduction from a nationwide federation to a small group of radicals.
The group finally disappeared in The anarcho-syndicalists formed several separate groups, eventually culminating in a united organisation called Jikyo for short. This was the peak membership for both groups,  as from onwards the Japanese state increasingly repressed political dissent following the beginning of war in Manchuria.
Inthe two anarchist union federations opted to reunify in a desperate attempt at survival. The reunited Zenkoku Jiren had only four thousand members in however, and it had halved to just 2, by In latethe Party attempted a bank robbery in order to obtain funds. This failed, and the subsequent investigation uncovered the previously-secret Anarchist Communist Party.
In response to this discovery, Japanese authorities arrested around anarchists, regardless of whether they were members of the Party. This sort of repression continued and essentially made it impossible for anarchists to organise. The last group to survive was the anarcho-syndicalist Tokyo Printers' Union, which disappeared in After the war, Ishikawa Sanshiro wrote Japan 50 Years Laterenvisioning Japanese society after an anarchist revolution.
In this work, he advocated a mutualist economy on a co-operative basis.
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He also supported nudism as an expression of freedom, and unlike his contemporary anarchists he endorsed the maintenance of the Japanese Emperor as a symbol of communal affection.
Anarchists coalesced into a new Japanese Anarchist Federation in May Both anarcho-communists and anarcho-syndicalists joined, conscious of trying to mend their pre-war division. Iwasa was elected chairman of the National Committee of the Federation, a chiefly organisational role. The organisation nonetheless failed to gain much support from the general public, due to a number of factors.
Anarchists were discriminated against due to a policy of anti-communism pursued by the American-led Allied occupation forceand anarchists also faced opposition from the Japanese Communist Party and its strong trade union presence.
Idealism, rather than the practical considerations of the populace, became the focus of Heimin Shinbunand this hindered their capacity to muster public support.
Tensions between the 'pure' and syndicalist anarchists resurfaced due to their lack of success. In Maya splitting organisation, the 'Anarcho-Syndicalist Group' Anaruko Sanjikarisuto Gurupu formed.
Significantly, Iwasa followed the communists in joining the Club, depriving the Federation of a central figure. Bythe Japanese Anarchist Federation had been reformed, albeit without reuniting with the communist faction.
He advocated a more gradual revolution, focusing on the social and cultural rather than the political. His ideas were controversial, decried by some as 'revisionist', but he firmly established a more reformist strand within the anarchist movement. As an anarchist movement, the Federation supported direct action on multiple occasions through its lifespan.
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One of the most significant of these was its participation in the massive Anpo Protests in opposition to revision of the U.
Huge demonstrations swept major cities, and the Sohyo labor federation and others staged strikes of around 4 to 6 million workers. Nonetheless, the treaty was forced through by the government.
Disillusionment with constitutional politics led the 'Mainstream' faction of the Zengakuren student movement to join with the JAF in calling for political violence as a form of protest.
Osawa commented in Jiyu-Rengo that the government's action was an 'outrage', but that this had happened repeatedly - and that each time a 'threat to parliamentary democracy' was talked about by journalists, two camps of party politicians furiously decried the other's action, but then proceeded to make a truce and ignore the problem. The rise of protest groups encouraged the Japanese Anarchist Federation to declare 'The Opening of the Era of Direct Action' in Despite this, the anarchism espoused by these students was not aligned with that of the JAF.
The 'Council of United Struggle' at the university declared that they were "aristocratic anarchists", struggling not on behalf of the worker but for themselves, attempting to deny their own aristocratic attributes by engaging in political struggle.